A point of reference against which a learner’s level of proficiency can be measured (ex. paper, project, presentation, assessment). 

Body of Evidence 

A comprehensive collection of student work that provides evidence of the important skills, knowledge, and concepts in the content proficiencies and Transferable Skills. 


An object or documentation created by a learner to demonstrate their learning in order to make their thinking visible and display their knowledge. Effective evidence is accurate, specific, coherent, and relevant. 


A final product, presentation, or performance used to evaluate student learning, skill acquisition, and academic achievement usually at the conclusion of a defined instructional period. Exhibitions allow students to defend evidence and reflect upon growth in proficiency in Transferable Skills. 


Indicators are used to assess student learning within a content area or transferable skill. Indicators are broken down into more specific learning targets within the classroom to support students in capturing evidence of their progress within the overarching Proficiencies. Students successfully demonstrate these Indicators as components of evidence of meeting Proficiencies. [Indicator examples: (TS 1.B) Use evidence and logic appropriately in communication; (SS 4.2) Students describe how government actions directly impact citizens locally, statewide, nationally, and /or internationally.] 

Learning Scales 

Learning scales are designed for the learner to use throughout learning as a guide, describing what learners can do to make progress toward and beyond a learning target. 

Personalize Learning Plan (PLP) 

A PLP is a formal document created by students, parents, and teachers in collaboration that establishes individual student goals based on academic and career objectives and personal interests, sequences content and skill development to achieve those goals and ensure that a student can graduate well-prepared for college and career paths, and is updated based on information about student performance in a variety of learning experiences that indicate progress towards goals. ​ 


Work that allows for mistakes and encourages students to access and improve content knowledge and skills. Practice work may be used as evidence of Content Proficiencies and/or Transferable Skills. 


This is the broad category in which students demonstrate achievement through nested Indicators at a pre-established level. The amount of proficient evidence needed to demonstrate proficiency will be established, calibrated, and revisited on a regular and ongoing basis. [Proficiency examples: (TS 1) CLEAR AND EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION, (SS 4) CIVICS, GOVERNMENT & SOCIETY] 

Proficiency Based Graduation Requirements (PBGRs) 

Established by the Vermont Agency of Education as the new criteria by which students will graduate. PBGRs are connected demonstrating a level of proficiency in Transferable Skills and Content Proficiencies. The state requirement is to have the system operational for the graduating class of 2020. 

Proficiency Levels 

I - Insufficient Evidence: There is little or no evidence at this time that the student is actively progressing toward a demonstration of proficiency MP - Making Progress: There is evidence at this time that the student is actively progressing toward a demonstration of proficiency and the missing components are identifiable PF - Proficient: There is sufficient evidence (artifacts and reflections) that the student has demonstrated proficiency ​E - Extended: The student has provided evidence that they have extended, applied, or transferred their knowledge and understanding beyond the proficient level 


​A student’s thoughtful review of completed practice or evidence using given standards or exemplars as comparisons. The goal of reflection is for students to show their understanding of their own strengths and challenges in working on a particular task, as well as recognizing what they achieved and which specific goals need work. Summative (Big R) Reflection includes description, connection, analysis, and progress. 

Single Point Rubric 

A tool that describes proficiency for a given target and allows teachers and/or students to document levels of proficiency. [Single Point Rubric example:] 


Learning targets identify the goals for a lesson and are framed from a learner’s perspective. They clarify what to learn, how deeply to learn it, and how to demonstrate evidence of new learning. These can be regarding content, skills, or both. [Target examples: (TS 1.B) I find evidence to support my position and arrange my ideas in a logical manner; (SS 4.2) Describe how government actions directly impact citizens statewide.]  

Transferable Skills 

​Life and career skills that are deemed by the state of Vermont to be essential outcomes for students as they move through the educational system. Transferable skills include clear and effective communication, creative and practical problem-solving, informed and integrative thinking, responsible and involved citizenship, and self-direction.

*Our indicators are drawn directly from the Vermont Agency of Education State Standards, Common Core State Standards for Language Arts and Mathematics, the Next Generation Science Standards, the C3 Social Studies Standards, and the National Core Art Standards.

This glossary has been largely adapted from Vermont Agency of Education, Mt. Abraham Union Middle/High School, and ASCD. ​